a general theory of collaboration In 2020, everyone is either a collaborator or a dissident. Everything is about power. Everything has to have a side. Everyone knows what side they should pick. Pick it—and you’re a collaborator. Reject it—a dissident. Nor are these labels chosen to mean that dissidents areRead More

the action imperative Political detachment might seem sociopathic. It isn’t. Almost 250 years ago in a city that has vanished, the philosopher Immanuel Kant—a single shelf of whose work, to paraphrase Macaulay, is worth more than all of 21st-century literature—proposed an ethical standard for collective action. The Kantian categorical imperative—anRead More

“Nothing appears more surprising… than the easiness with which the many are governed by the few, and the implicit submission with which men resign their own sentiments and passions to those of their rulers.… force is always on the side of the governed, the governors have nothing to support them but opinion. It is, therefore, on opinion only that government is founded, and this maxim extends to the most despotic and most military governments, as well as to the freest and most popular.”Read More