What’s curious is that, in many cases, incompetence does not leave people disoriented, perplexed, or cautious. Instead, the incompetent are often blessed with an inappropriate confidence, buoyed by something that feels to them like knowledge.

DAVID DUNNING (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999)

Learning is time-consuming. It’s difficult to acquire Knowledge. Most knowledge isn’t necessary. People conflate equilibrium with status quo.

Learning upsets equilibrium in the short-term. Knowledge changes status quo permanently. Knowledge supersedes Ignorance. Ignorant is inferior state to Expert. People mistake Expertise with Elitism.

People defend autonomy and self-worth as essentials of life. Equality is an essential ideal. Elitism is an enemy of Equality. Ignorance and Knowledge can be tools of Elitism.

Equality misdirects rejection of Elitism into rejection of Expertise. Ignorance finds itself in harmony with equilibrium and status quo. This is a dangerous corollary!

Those who lack relevant knowledge look at what they don’t understand and imagine nefarious deeds.

AMY TEUTEUR (Push Back, 2016)

Asking yourself “How Wrong Am I?” is the best question you can ask yourself. At least once a day.


Dunning-Kruger: about any opinion or conclusion you have, involving the behaviour or motivations of other people (or groups of people).

The answer must explain the behaviour or motivations, in such a way it’d be plausible for you or your in-group, e.g. if a few key external circumstances were different.

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